Mohanjo Daro

A city at the coastline of the river grows as a trading hub with remarkable and impressive systems. Moreover, farming, handicrafts, and agriculture along with other craftsmanship, metallurgy, and gemstone trading was the well-known business of that era. It is located at the west bank of the Indus river in modern-day Larkana district, Pakistan. The magnificent but unfortunate city is named after mountains or heaps of the dead. 

There is no such finding of written books or scripts that can elaborate about the civilization, people, culture, religion, and their language. However, the only source of getting information is to get assumption-based theories through the knowledge of archaeologists. The vast and grand city is still under-study, and there are mysterious questions that need answers.

For instance, at the earliest times, what was the intellectual level of people, how they came to build such a well-developed town and reached to plan a perfect government and organizational system. What were the original reasons behind the extermination or destruction of the city? How does a well-developed city with the most intelligent people disappear all of a sudden? Where and why did all the people leave the great civilization? What religion and which language do they adopt? And many more. There are a plethora of unending questions that need answers. 

For instance, at the earliest times, what was the intellectual level of people, how they came to build such a well-developed town and reached to plan a perfect government and organizational system. What were the original reasons behind the extermination or destruction of the city? How does a well-developed city with the most intelligent people disappear all of a sudden? Where and why did all the people leave the great civilization? What religion and which language do they adopt? And many more. There are a plethora of unending questions that need answers. In short, a diversified culture with a magnificent developmental system demands attention and asks countless questions from researchers. 

In short, a diversified culture with a magnificent developmental system demands attention and asks countless questions from researchers. 

 Mohenjo-Daro is the world’s earliest urban center with uniform houses containing bathrooms, a drainage system, a well, a courtyard, and a kitchen. 

Scripts, arts, and society:

There are no worshipping places found during the excavation process. However, some artifacts, sculptures, and detailed figurines not only demonstrate their craftsmanship but also their religious concepts upon gods or goddesses. Researches have shown that there was the concept of deities in inhabitants. To support this concept, the figurine and carvings of the goddess of fertility were also found during the process. The presence of animals on the seals indicates the mighty and elite class concept in the civilization. 

Gold jewelry, bronze artifacts, and goddess Terracotta statues were really common at that time. A figurine of 11 centimeters known as the Dancing girl was also discovered during excavation wearing jewelry and hairs are covered very neatly. The loaded bangles demonstrate and elaborate the rituals of jewelry among females. But the problem is still the same. There are very few written records are available about Indus valley civilization unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt civilization. This creates difficulty in understanding the culture and governance system completely. The great bath at the Mohenjo-Daro is a huge structure reaching out a high degree of perfection. The internal walls of the bath were made of gypsum mortar to make it water-tight. It also denotes the existence of the ruling or elite class. 

Cock-fighting and chicken breeding were religious rituals. Maybe the city was the hub of worldwide chicken domestication. The artistic limestone statue was also unearthed from the Mohenjo-Daro, a man with a beard wearing a shawl on the left eye known as “Yogi”.  Historians, researchers, and archeologists only assume things after realizing the sculptures and physical antiques. Their beliefs about the afterlife and socio-economic stratification of the society are reckoned and suggested after analyzing and studying the seals and stamps. Most of the researchers believe and suggest that the people of Mohenjo-Daro were not involved in warfares. It’s probably their geography around the river. Very few weapons are unearthed in some places. However, it is believed that these weapons were used against wild animals. As already mentioned that it is hard to suggest or depict the form of government in that era. However, the way seals are carved, and stamps with mighty features and rituals depict that there was some form of government or some controlling authority that was there, but not deciphered yet.

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