Life is unpredictable and mysterious. If you reckon human knows everything from origin or climatic changes and unpredictable natural calamities that happens; You must re-consider it. There are many mysteries beneath the layers of soil. Inconstant secrets are buried below waters. How many times have the assumptions and beliefs of previous civilizations gone wrong with sudden discoveries? The same thing happens when a sudden discovery of an old city puts historians, researchers, and archaeologists at their wits’ end. 

 In 1856, British colonial administrators were monitoring the construction of a railway line from Karachi to Lahore. On one fine day, laborers discovered some fire-baked bricks at the end of dry terrain. No doubt, they may use many of them un-realizing their importance. However, the thing makes them consider the importance of something uncommon was the discoveries of antique pieces. But unfortunately, the excavation of the site remains under discussion for another 70 years. The excavation process started in the early 1920s, and with every passing day, it was a surprise for archaeologists. The uniform placement of the fire-baked bricks and the unearthed antiques, statues, and soapstone dolls were all the prints of some old civilization.

In the early 1920’s the excavation reveals it was the third most ancient and organized civilization of mankind ever existed on the planet. It is known as the Indus Valley civilization or Harappan civilization. It is the best civilization of the era that consists of the most organized and intellectual people. The people who were peaceful and loving. There are no prints of wars or warfare ever happening in human history. The excavation process still is not complete, and all things are still not deciphered. The tale of civilization, the intellectuality of the people is still under study. However, the belongings and the architecture of the peoples of Harappa reveal that the usage of boats, watercraft, and wheeled transportation is too old than our assumptions.

The discovery of this civilization questions historians in many ways. It will not be wrong if I say it opened a new gateway to think about the origin of the world. Moreover, the most reckoning or thoughtful question is that why a peaceful, war-free civilization went through the process of extinction. How, when, and why it happens. And precisely what happens with those people.

Our principal focus is to discuss two large cities that share stunning similarities and were a part of this unfortunate civilization. The magnificent cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa contain well-sculptured houses, eminent baths, government buildings, and trading places. However, no excavation showed us what exact form of government they had. Both of the cities were fortified and protected from the outside with about 12 meters long walls. Most apparently, the walls protect them from floods and wild animals as the cities were located at the bank of the Indus river.

Undoubtedly, historians and archaeologists believe that the Indus river played a vital role in the existence, survival, and development of this civilization or maybe in extinction too. To support the previous statement, water is important and necessary for survival. Humans need water for drinking, doing house chores, irrigating the soil, and farming. The abundance of water with the availability of the best fertile soil and the mind-blowing geographical location helps the civilization to grow, expand, and develop.

The artifacts made from the Chinese jade, Omanian shells, and Iranian minerals support the assumption of the historians about trading. There’s a strong theory that these people do trading worldwide, and the watercraft strengthen the theories with all sources. Religious and cultural beliefs are not very clear about civilization. However, the discovery of goddess and god statues, stamps and seals, stickers and toys, help anthropologists to understand the culture of that time. There are many questions which wait answers, many confusions that need solutions, and many unanswered and undeciphered realities about mankind. Hope we will discuss them in our next chapter in detail.

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